This past weekend we celebrate the feast of one the apostles and gospel writers, Matthew also known as Levi. He is one of the original twelve disciples. We find his calling in Matthew 9:9: “As Jesus passed on from there, he saw a man called Matthew sitting at the tax collector’s booth, and he said to him, ‘Follow me.’ And he rose and followed him.” He was a tax collector from Capernaum who was named among the Twelve (Matt. 10:3; Mk. 3:18; Lk. 6:15 and Acts 1:13). He is called Levi, son of Alpheus (Mk. 2:14 and Lk. 5:27). He was a 1st century Galilean and he had been a tax collector for the Romans during the reign of Herod Antipas, a profession hated and detested by Jews and Gentiles alike and the basis for his patronage of banker and accountants. His tax office was located in Capernaum. Jews who became rich in such a way were despised and considered outcasts. The Jews would also have considered Matthew and his colleagues as traitors, since collecting taxes entailed cooperation with their Roman occupiers. But as a tax collector, Matthew would have been literate in Aramaic and Greek.
It was in this setting, near what is now Almagor, that Jesus called him. After being called, Matthew invited him home for a feast. Upon seeing this, the scribes and Pharisees were indignant and criticized Jesus for dining with tax collectors and sinners. Dining with someone was serious business in the first century. But upon seeing this, Jesus answered them, “I came not to call the righteous but sinners.” (Matt. 9:13; Mk. 2:17).
Matthew was one of the witnesses of the resurrection and ascension of Jesus. After the ascension, he was with the disciples in the Upper Room (Acts 1:10-14) and was there at Pentecost. Church Fathers such as Irenaeus and Clement of Alexandria hold that Matthew preached the gospel to the Jewish communities in Judea before going to other countries. But ancient writers disagree as to what countries those are. Tradition has it that he was martyred in Ethiopia or Persia.
The precise date of the writing of Matthew’s gospel is unknown. In light of Irenaeus’ assertion (c. A.D. 175) that Matthew composed his gospel while Peter and Paul were still living, it is traditionally dated to the late 50s or early 60s.