Tag Archives: God the Father

Three Little Words That Divide East & West

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You probably hardly take notice of them. They are three little words in the Nicene Creed and they have divided Eastern and Western Christians for centuries. Those words? “and the Son.” They appear in the section dealing with the Holy Spirit where it reads: “…who proceeds from the Father and the Son.” It is known as the filioque phrase and it has proven to be highly divisive.

It was not a part of the original Nicene Creed that came from the Council of Nicaea in 325 which only read “We believe in the Holy Spirit.” Then the Council of Constantinople in 381 added a fuller statement regarding the Holy Spirit being a fully divine person. But it only stated that the Spirit proceeded from the Father (single procession). It was not until 589 at the Council of Toledo that that seemingly small phrase, “and the Son” (double procession) was added. The West did this on their own without consulting the East which may help explain how this small phrase came to divide the two halves of Christendom.

This phrase was gradually accepted in the West and is therefore in our version of the Nicene Creed. But to this day, the East still rejects it and is they are still astounded at the casualness with which the West added the filioque to the creed. From the sixth century onward, when the West began to insert “and the Son” to the sentence dealing with the Spirit’s procession from the Father, the Orthodox began to complain that the West was violating both the spirit and the letter of Nicaea. They were violating the spirit by acting unilaterally in making the change and the letter by violating an explicit canon of the council that the wording of its formula was not to be changed. Additionally, the East argued that the Western addition was a grievous theological error. In this view, the Western urge to equalize relationships among the members of the Trinity short-circuited the full personality of the Spirit and so crippled the understanding of what the Spirit was to do.

In 1054, the Great Schism between East and West occurred and communication between the two stopped for centuries. But in recent decades, the communication between East and West started up again. In 1987, Pope John Paul II and Patriarch Demetrios I met in Rome, where they recited together the Nicene Creed without the filioque phrase.